In Swedish: Sten Lennquist (red) Traumatologi, Liber, 2007.

Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K: Imaging in trauma and critical care, 2nd ed, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2003

Mirvis SE, Kubal WS, Shanmuganathan K, Yu J, Soto JA. Problem solving in emergency radiology. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, USA, 2014

Gean, AD: Imaging of head trauma, Raven Press, New York, New York, USA, 1994

Gean, AD: Brain Injury: Applications from War and Terrorism, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014

Web addresses –interactive forum and knowledgebank with surgical focus – Journal of trauma, injury, infection and critical care – the most comprehensive trauma journal, lots of radiological information, on-line fulltext from 1995 onwards.– evidence based recommendations in trauma from Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, USA


Specific topics

Velmahos GC, Toutouzas KG, Vassiliu P et al: A prospective study on the safety and efficacy of angiographic embolization for pelvic and visceral Injuries, J Trauma 2002 August; 53(2):303–308

Asensio JA , Roldan G, Petrone P et al: Operative Management and Outcomes in 103 AAST-OIS Grades IV and V Complex Hepatic Injuries: Trauma Surgeons Still Need to Operate, but Angioembolization Helps. J Trauma 2003 April; 54(4):647–654

Geeraedts LM Jr, Kaasjager HA, van Vugt AB, Frölke JP. Exsanguination in trauma: A review of diagnostics and treatment options. Injury. 2009 Jan;40(1):11-20. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2008.10.007. Epub 2009 Jan 8.

Osborn PM, Smith WR, Moore EE, Cothren CC, Morgan SJ, Williams AE, Stahel PF. Direct retroperitoneal pelvic packing versus pelvic angiography: A comparison of two management protocols for haemodynamically unstable pelvic fractures. Injury. 2009 Jan;40(1):54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2008.08.038. Epub 2008 Nov 30.

Misselbeck TS, Teicher EJ, Cipolle MD, et al.. Hepatic angioembolization in trauma patients: indications and complications. J Trauma 2009;67:769–73.

Wei B, Hemmila MR, Arbabi S, Taheri PA, Wahl WL. Angioembolization reduces operative intervention for blunt splenic injury. J Trauma 2008;64:1472–7


FAST - ultrasound
Miller MT, Pasquale MD, Bromberg WJ et al: Not so Fast. J Trauma 2003 January; 54(1):52–60

Stengel D, Bauwens K, Rademacher G et al: Association between compliance with methodological standards of diagnostic research and reported test accuracy: Meta-analysis of focused assessment of US for trauma.  Radiology 2005 Jul; 236(1):102-11

Stengel D, Bauwens K, Sehouli J et al: Emergency ultrasound-based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 2. Art. No: CD004446.pub2

Körner M, Krötz MM, Degenhart C, Pfeifer KJ, Reiser MF, Linsenmaier U. Current Role of Emergency US in Patients with Major Trauma. Radiographics. 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1):225-42. doi: 10.1148/rg.281075047.


ICRP – international comittee for protection of radiation

Raptis CA, Mellnick VM, Raptis DA, Kitchin D, Fowler KJ, Lubner M, Bhalla S, Menias CO. Imaging of trauma in the pregnant patient. Radiographics. 2014 May-Jun;34(3):748-63. doi: 10.1148/rg.343135090.

Brink M, de Lange F, Oostveen LJ, Dekker HM, Kool DR, Deunk J, Edwards MJ, van Kuijk C, Kamman RL, Blickman JG. Karlo et al.  Arm raising at exposure-controlled multidetector trauma CT of thoracoabdominal region: higher image quality, lower radiation dose.  Radiology. 2008 Nov;249(2):661-70. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2492080169.

Karlo C, Gnannt R, Frauenfelder T, Leschka S, Brüesch M, Wanner GA, Alkadhi H. Whole-body CT in polytrauma patients: effect of arm positioning on thoracic and abdominal image quality.  Emerg Radiol. 2011 Aug;18(4):285-93. doi: 10.1007/s10140-011-0948-5. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Whole Body CT
Huber-Wagner S1, Lefering R, Qvick LM, Körner M, Kay MV, Pfeifer KJ, Reiser M, Mutschler W, Kanz KG. Effect of whole-body CT during trauma resuscitation on survival: a retrospective, multicentre study. Lancet. 2009 Apr 25;373(9673):1455-61. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60232-4. Epub 2009 Mar 25.

Leidner B, Beckman MO: Standardized whole-body computed tomography as a screening tool in blunt multitrauma patients. Emergency Radiology 8:20–28, 2001

Salim A, Sangthong B, Martin M, Brown C, Plurad D, Demetriades D. Whole body imaging in blunt multisystem trauma patients without obvious signs of injury: results of a prospective study. Arch Surg. 2006 May;141(5):468-73.

Yeguiayan JM, Yap A, Freysz M, Garrigue D, Jacquot C, Martin C, Binquet C, Riou B, Bonithon-Kopp C; FIRST Study Group. Impact of whole-body computed tomography on mortality and surgical management of severe blunt trauma. Crit Care. 2012 Jun 11;16(3):R101

Lee WS, Parks NA, Garcia A, Palmer BJ, Liu TH, Victorino GP. Pan computed tomography versus selective computed tomography in stable, young adults after blunt trauma with moderate mechanism: A cost-utility analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Oct;77(4):527-33.

Wada D, Nakamori Y, Yamakawa K, Fujimi S First clinical experience with IVR-CT system in the emergency room: positive impact on trauma workflow. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012 Aug 7;20:52.

Körner M1, Krötz MM, Wirth S, Huber-Wagner S, Kanz KG, Boehm HF, Reiser M, Linsenmaier U. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises. Eur Radiol. 2009 Aug;19(8):1867-74. doi: 10.1007/s00330-009-1361-2. Epub 2009 Mar 11.

van Vugt R, Kool DR, Brink M, Dekker HM, Deunk J, Edwards MJ. Thoracoabdominal computed tomography in trauma patients: a cost-consequences analysis. Trauma Mon. 2014 Aug;19(3):e19219. doi: 10.5812/traumamon.19219. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Vascular Imaging
Foster BR, Anderson SW, Uyeda JW, Brooks JG, Soto JA. Integration of 64-detector lower extremity CT angiography into whole-body trauma imaging: feasibility and early experience. Radiology. 2011 Dec;261(3):787-95. doi: 10.1148/radiol.11100604. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

af Geijerstam JL, Oredsson S, Britton M: OCTOPUS Study Investigators: Medical outcome after immediate computed tomography or admission for observation in patients with mild head injury: randomised controlled trial BMJ 2006; 333:465

Oman JA, Cooper RJ, Holmes JF et al: Performance of a decision rule to predict need for computed tomography among children with blunt head trauma. Pediatrics. 2006; 117:2

Washington CW, Grubb RL Jr. Are routine repeat imaging and intensive care unit admission necessary in mild traumatic brain injury? J Neurosurg. 2012 Mar;116(3):549-57.

Sifri ZC, Homnick AT, Vaynman A, Lavery R, Liao W, Mohr A, Hauser CJ, Manniker A, Livingston D. A prospective evaluation of the value of repeat cranial computed tomography in patients with minimal head injury and an intracranial bleed. J Trauma. 2006 Oct;61(4):862-7.

Holmes JF, Akkinepalli R:  Computed tomography versus plain radiography to screen for cervical spine injury: a meta-analysis. J Trauma 2005 May; 58(5):902–905

Diaz JJ Jr, Gillman C, Morris JA Jr et al: Are five-view plain films of the cervical spine unreliable? A prospective evaluation in blunt trauma patients with altered mental status. J Trauma 2003; 55:658–664

Hoffman JR, Mower WR, Wolfson AB et al: Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000 jul; 13;343(2):94–9

Goode T, Young A, Wilson SP, Katzen J, Wolfe LG, Duane TM. Evaluation of cervical spine fracture in the elderly: can we trust our physical examination? Am Surg. 2014 Feb;80(2):182-4.

Muchow RD, Resnick DK, Abdel MP et al.. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the clearance of the cervical spine in blunt trauma: a meta-analysis. J Trauma 2008;64:179–189.

Panczykowski DM, Tomycz ND, Okonkwo DO. Comparative effectiveness of using computed tomography alone to exclude cervical spine injuries in obtunded or intubated patients: meta- analysis of 14,327 patients with blunt trauma. J Neurosurg 2011;115:541–549.

Cerebrovascular injuries
Biffl WL, Ray CE Jr, Moore EE et al: Treatment-related outcomes from blunt cerebrovascular injuries: importance of routine follow-up arteriography. Annals of Surgery 2002; 235(5),699–707

Cothren CC, Moore EE, Ray CE Jr et al: Screening for blunt cerebrovascular injuries is cost-effective Am J Surg. 2005; 190(6):845–9

Ray CE Jr, Spalding SC, Cothren CC et al: State of the art: noninvasive imaging and management of neurovascular trauma. World Journal of Emergency Surgery 2:1, 2007

Eastman AL, Chason DP, Perez CL et al: Computed tomographic angiography for the diagnosis of blunt cervical vascular injury: is it ready for primetime? J Trauma 2006; 60:925–929

Sliker CW1, Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE. Diagnosis of blunt cerebrovascular injuries with 16-MDCT: accuracy of whole-body MDCT compared with neck MDCT angiography. Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Mar;190(3):790-9. doi: 10.2214/AJR.07.2378.

T- & L-spine
Hauser CJ, Visvikis G, Hinrichs C et al: Prospective validation of computed tomographic screening of the thoracolumbar spine in trauma. J Trauma 2003; 55:228–235

EAST Practice Management Guidelines for the Screening of Thoracolumbar Spine Fracture.

Mancini DJ, Burchard KW, Pekala JS. Optimal thoracic and lumbar spine imaging for trauma: are thoracic and lumbar spine reformats always indicated? J Trauma 2010;69:119–121.

Thoracic injuries
Exadaktylos AK , Sclabas G, Schmid SW  et al: Do we really need routine computed tomographic scanning in the primary evaluation of blunt chest Trauma in patients with “normal” chest radiograph? J Trauma 2001; 51:1173–1176

Ho ML, Gutierrez FR. Chest radiography in thoracic polytrauma. Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Mar;192(3):599-612. doi: 10.2214/AJR.07.3324.

Traumatic Aortic Injury
Sinclair DS: Traumatic aortic injury: an imaging review. Emergency Radiology 2002; 9:13–20

Mirvis SE, Pais SO, Shanmuganathan K: Atypical results of thoracic aortography performed to exclude aortic injury. Emergency Radiology 1994; 1:24–31

Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K: Imaging in trauma and critical care. 2nd ed, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2003; p 332 ff

EAST Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of blunt aortic injury, 2000

Steenburg SD, Ravenel JG, Ikonomidis JS, Schönholz C, Reeves S. Acute traumatic aortic injury: imaging evaluation and management. Radiology. 2008 Sep;248(3):748-62. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2483071416.

Fox N, Schwartz D, Salazar JH, Haut ER, Dahm P, Black JH, Brakenridge SC, Como JJ, Hendershot K, King DR, Maung AA, Moorman ML, Nagy K, Petrey LB, Tesoriero R, Scalea TM, Fabian TC. Evaluation and management of blunt traumatic aortic injury: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jan;78(1):136-46. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000470.

Abdominal injuries
EAST Practice Management Guidelines Work Group 2003: Practice management guidelines for the nonoperative management of blunt injury to the liver and spleen

Deunk J, Brink M, Dekker HM, Kool DR, Blickman JG, van Vugt AB, Edwards MJ. Routine versus selective multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in blunt trauma patients: level of agreement on the influence of additional findings on management. J Trauma. 2009 Nov;67(5):1080-6. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318189371d.

Shanmuganathan K1, Mirvis SE, Chiu WC, Killeen KL, Scalea TM. Triple-contrast helical CT in penetrating torso trauma: a prospective study to determine peritoneal violation and the need for laparotomy. Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Dec;177(6):1247-56.

Boscak AR1, Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, Fleiter TR, Miller LA, Sliker CW, Steenburg SD, Alexander M. Optimizing trauma multidetector CT protocol for blunt splenic injury: need for arterial and portal venous phase scans. Radiology. 2013 Jul;268(1):79-88. doi: 10.1148/radiol.13121370. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Soto JA, Anderson SW. Multidetector CT of blunt abdominal trauma. Radiology. 2012 Dec;265(3):678-93. doi: 10.1148/radiol.12120354.

Intestinal injuries
Williams MD, Watts D, Fakhry S et al: Colon Injury after Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Results of the EAST Multi-institutional Hollow Viscus Injury Study. Journal of Trauma. 2003 November; 55(5):906–912

LeBedis CA1, Anderson SW, Soto JA. CT imaging of blunt traumatic bowel and mesenteric injuries. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012 Jan;50(1):123-36. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2011.08.003.

Urogenital injuries
EAST Practice Management Guidelines Work Group 2003: Practice management guidelines for the evaluation of genitourinary trauma.

Trauma & Contrast
Colling KP, Irwin ED, Byrnes MC, Reicks P, Dellich WA, Reicks K, Gipson J, Beilman GJ. Computed tomography scans with intravenous contrast: low incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in blunt trauma patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Aug;77(2):226-30. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000336.

Knuth TE1, Paxton JH, Myers D. Intraosseous Injection of Iodinated Computed Tomography Contrast Agent in an Adult Blunt Trauma Patient . Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Apr;57(4):382-6. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2010.09.025. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Kerry L. Ahrens, Scott B. Reeder, Jon G. Keevil, Janis P. Tupesis  Successful Computed Tomography Angiogram Through Tibial Intraosseous Access: A Case Report. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 2, August 2013, Pages 182–185

Trauma References
(Last update 2015-03-30)